Fundamentals of Statistics contains material of various lectures and courses of H. Lohninger on statistics, data analysis and chemometrics......click here for more.

## Stem-and-Leaf Plots

Stem-and-Leaf plots are another form of histograms (one may consider these plots as the alphanumeric version of a histogram). This display is calculated by using the integer portion of the data as the "stem" and the digit after the decimal point as the "leaf". Each stem is printed in one line, and all leaves of a stem (that means all values which have the same integer values) are printed in ascending order in the line of the corresponding stem. Normally, only the first digit after the decimal place is used to build up the stem-and-leaf display.

39 : 8
40 : 1 2
41 : 1 1 5 7
42 : 3 6 8 8 9
43 : 1 2 4 4 5 7 9 9
44 : 0 1 2 3 5 5 6 8 8 9
45 : 0 0 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 9
46 : 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 7 8
47 : 0 1 1 4 6 8
48 : 0 2 7
49 : 2
50 : 3 4
51 : 1
52 : 6
53 : 2

Note that the data may have to be range scaled before calculating the stem-and-leaf plot.